On 24 February 2022, Russia began a military invasion of Ukraine, in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian conflict that began in 2014. It is the largest military conflict in Europe since World War II. With over three million Ukrainians fleeing the country, the invasion has also caused the largest refugee crisis in Europe since World War II.
-Wikipedia: 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Since February 24th, fighting has spread through eastern and southern Ukraine, particularly in the capital, Kyiv (Kee-eve), and in the regions of Crimea and Donbas. Cities such as Kharkiv, Mariupol, Sumy, and others are under attack.
Peace negotiations between Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy have been ongoing, but the fighting continues.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state, formalized with a referendum on December 1. With the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, Ukraine now became an area of overlapping spheres of influence of the European Union and the Russian Federation. This manifested in a political split between the "pro-Russian" Eastern Ukraine, and the "pro-European" Western Ukraine, leading to an ongoing period of political turmoil, beginning with the "Orange Revolution" of 2004, and culminating in 2014 with the "Euromaidan" uprising and the Crimean Crisis, in which Crimea fell under the control of the Russian Federation.
-Wikipedia: Modern history of Ukraine
For more recent history in Ukraine, visit the History tab of this guide.
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